Soothes Muscles. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W., Lipman, D. J. Evol. The pink, red, and white plants showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these two markers. (E) BioProject: PRJNA270773 (RPKM of PI 296341), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP50. 38, 837–841. 1 implied that a major effect gene controlled this trait. This might indicate that the accumulation of lycopene was not dependent on the expression of LCYB. Biol. Theor. J. Hunan Agric. 129, 1247–1256. (2011). Crop J. Watermelon is an unusual fruit source of the carotenoid lycopene and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. By performing stepwise increases in mapping population sizes, marker numbers, and multiple genetic populations, a major effective QTL and candidate gene related to lycopene content and red flesh color was refined in a narrow region of chromosome 4. 2 and Pop. (2008). (2018). Plant Cell Rep. 33 (9), 1441–1451. This SNP (G676th to T676th) changed valine (V: red) into glycine (nonred). doi: 10.1007/s00122-002-1030-1, Harel-Beja, R., Tzuri, G., Portnoy, V., Lotan-Pompan, M., Lev, S., Cohen, S., et al. Two kinds of assisted selection markers for red flesh color in watermelon were generated by Bang et al. Appl. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents. Cla005012 was annotated as the kinesin-like protein that seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). J. Hered. Construction of molecular genetic map of watermelon by SSR and ISSR technology. Theor. The highest lycopene amount was found in watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with orange allelic variation and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in melon fruit. Plant Cell Physiol. 127 (9), 1917–1933. 25 (6), 908–915. The results showed that all genes were divided into three categories, which were defined as lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (LCYE). (2012). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. CW, LS, and FL conceived and designed the experiments. 110, 802–811. J. Euphytica 164, 445–461. A., McKenzie, G., Sharma, S. K., Hedley, P. E., et al. This work was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31601775 and 31572144), the “Young Talent” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17QC06), the project of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611345), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-25). 54, 2593–2597. Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K. (2011). Genet. (2003). Appl. doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2, Bang, H., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., King, S. (2007). Euphytica 202 (3), 411–426. (1900). In our research, different shades of flesh color in one color system validate the same MAS results. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya) were 104.699±0.000, 144.27 ±0.001, 4.122±0.000, 31.189±0.001, 10.028±0.000, 13.1904±0.000 and 45.342±0.000 mg/kg, respectively. Appl. Appl. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2660-4, Gonzalo, M. J., Oliver, M., Garcia-Mas, J., Monfort, A., Dolcet-Sanjuan, R., Katzir, N., et al. Cla005011 had a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits ripen, while in LSW-177, it increased as time went on. MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, grapefruits, and papayas, but it is not present in strawberries or cherries. Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Fruit Sci. Map-based cloning, identification and characterization of the w gene controlling white immature fruit color in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Bananas were fourth in accumulated lycopene (31.189±0.001mg/kg). Packaged foods such as ketchup, tomato juice, tomato paste and pizza sauce are also a high quality source of lycopene. tomato or watermelon. In liverwort, the results of functional identification also proved that the LCYB gene had a lycopene degradation capability to produce β-carotene at the enzyme activity level (Takemura et al., 2014). 15 (5), 266–274. 174, 52–59. J. Hered. doi: 10.1093/jhered/93.1.77, Wang, L. Y., Meng, X., Yang, D. Y., Ma, N. N., Wang, G. D., Meng, Q. W. (2014). B., Tian, P. (2010). lanatus) while the lowest lycopene quantity was observed in jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus). 55, 194–200. J. Mol. Biol. LCYB clusters I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pct170, Tzuri, G., Zhou, X. J., Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Portnoy, V., Meir, A., et al. "They … Lycopene content varied among 43 different flesh colour watermelon materials, from 0.0000 mg/100 g FW in G8 to 5.7536 mg/100 g FW in G4. This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers026, Suwarno, W. B., Pixley, K. V., Palacios-Rojas, N., Kaeppler, S. M., Babu, R. (2015). Breed. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. However, for each color system, other genes may regulate the amount of pigment accumulation to direct the formation of different shades of flesh color. The cauliflower Or gene encodes aDnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene accumulation. (2010). doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1158-5, Bo, K. L., Song, H., Shen, J., Qian, C. T., Staub, J. E., Simon, P. W., et al. Lycopene content and flesh color are important traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon. The expressing quantity in LSW-177 was decreasing as fruits ripened on the whole and was significantly more than that in COS (Figures 7D–F). Renowned Nutritionist, Dr. Shilpa Arora shares, 'Watermelons consist of 94 percent water, lycopene, potassium and a lot of other nutrients. Mol. 141 (5), 434–443. 121, 511–533. From lane 2 to 6 are five red flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 8 to 12 are five yellowish flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 14 to 18 are five pink flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 20 to 24 are five white flesh color watermelon accessions. Restriction enzyme digestion of W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 (MluI, KpnI, and MboII) was more cost-effective than that of WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 (BsaHI). Expression of carotenogenic genes during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit. It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit (Wang et al., 2016). (2005). The range of lycopene content among diploid watermelon fruit was from 33.2 to 54.8 mg kg" with a mean of44.1mg kg", The The genome data of 4 parental materials and 20 other published watermelon accessions (Guo et al., 2012) were used to extract the sequence of the LCYB gene for sequence alignment and variation detection. Food Sci. Appl. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Zhang, L., Wang, J. Japan. The skewed distribution of lycopene content in Pop. The results showed that lycopene in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. According to the genotyping results (Table S3), all of the red and pink plants had the code 1, 0, 0, 0, whereas the code for the yellowish plants was 0, 1, 1, 1. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.02.003, Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Ohali, S., Meir, A., Yeselson, Y., Portnoy, V., et al. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. A lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and money into taking care of their skin. (1991). doi: 10.1179/174329211X13020951739938, Liu, C. H., Zhang, H. Y., Dai, Z. Y., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Deng, X. X., et al. Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. (1997). Similarly, if 1 cup diced watermelon (152 g edible portion) provides a mean of 7.3 mg lycopene, then 2 Xanthophyll cycle—a mechanism protecting plants against oxidative stress. In the yellowish group, each plant exhibited 389- or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and 460- or 158-bp bands for WII04E07-40. Protects Your Joints. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs1951.13.235, Silberstein, L., Kovalski, I., Brotman, Y., Perin, C., Dogimont, C., Pitrat, M., et al. Nucleic Acids Res. On average, watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). Watermelon lycopene β-cyclase: promoter characterization leads to the development of a PCR marker for allelic selection. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Front. (D) BioProject: PRJNA221197 (RPKM of 97103), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34. Among the 11 CAPS markers, only two markers (WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38) showed polymorphisms between garden parent and PI 186490. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esj023, Han, F. Q., Yang, C., Fang, Z. Y., Yang, L. M., Zhuang, M., Lv, H. H., et al. doi: 10.13925/j.cnki.gsxb.2008.06.018. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Orange-fleshed plants were segregated in Pop. The transcriptional expression (RPKM) of two candidate genes, Cla005011 and Cla005012, in the above species of watermelons was quantified at different periods of development. Mol. & Nakai. Each accession was represented by the restriction enzyme results using the four markers (in the order of WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.07.011, Takemura, M., Maoka, T., Misawa, N. (2014). (2012). Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. 117, 1345–1359. (B) BioProject: PRJNA270773 (RPKM of PI 296341), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP50. J. According to the genotyping data with the gene marker WII04EBsaHI-6 in Pop. Genet. 3, two flesh colors (red and red mixed with white) appeared in individuals homozygous for the same alleles as garden parent, while plants with other flesh colors carried heterozygous alleles, similar to the F1 generation. Nat. Breed. Genet. The white flesh color trait was incomplete dominant to the red flesh trait based on the fact that the two F1 generations of Pop. Additionally, the number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative. doi: 10.1038/ng.2470, Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C. (2006). Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 is the D2000 plus DNA marker. PI 186490, with a pure white flesh color, was different from COS and PI 296341-FR. Both LSW-177 and garden parent have red flesh color in their mature fruit, but their segregation was quite different when they were crossed with the white-fleshed PI 186490. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0868-2, Danin-Poleg, Y., Reis, N., Tzuri, G. (2001). Figure 8 Phylogenetic tree analysis of lycopene homologous genes in different Cucurbitaceae crops and tomato. Breed. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0077-8, Fernandez-Silva, I., Eduardo, I., Blanca, J., Esteras, C., Pico, B., Nuez, F., et al. doi: 10.1007/s00299-014-1627-2, Wang, N., Liu, S., Gao, P., Luan, F. S. (2016). Theor. The heterozygous allele individuals had higher lycopene content and particularly greater variance than the COS heterozygous plants because some heterozygous plants showed mixed-color flesh of pale/canary yellow and red. (2011). Recently, there has been increased interest in red-fleshed watermelons because they contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene. Some white-fleshed PI lines were heterozygous at these marker loci. The same trend was also observed for WII04E08-38. (2015). Overcome Impotence. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Guava, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and papaya are also excellent sources of lycopene. The same QTL region and markers showed a high detection efficacy for red flesh color or lycopene content in the two populations through linkage analysis and MAS. J. Hered. Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai) is a natural source of lycopene, with a reported average content of 48.7 µg g −1 fresh weight based on samples taken from retail produce. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. Figure S2 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (359 plants) derived from a cross between garden female and PI 186490. Appl. Physiol. 3, there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants. 129, 717–728. Genet. Bioinformatics 25 (15), 1972–1973. 3, respectively. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. 1 was 9:3:4 in both 2013 (Liu et al., 2015) and 2014, and we propose that the gene for pale yellow (Py) flesh in watermelon is epistatic to the canary yellow–related gene based on the appearance of pale yellow flesh color in Pop. Theor. doi: 10.1007/s00122-004-1814-6, Grassi, S., Piro, G., Lee, J. M., Zheng, Y., Fei, Z. J., Dalessandro, G., et al. Indeed, research showed that lycopene is better absorbed by the body when tomatoes are processed. A ‘golden’ SNP in CmOr governs the fruit flesh color of melon (Cucumis melo). Based on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers were developed to narrow down the region from 392,077 bp to 41,233 bp. Plants with the marker restriction site were scored as 1, those without were scored as 0, and heterozygotes were recorded as h. With this method, each material could be given a marker code for flesh color. High-level expression of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4;2 is required for flesh color development in watermelon. Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) Agric. doi: 10.1111/tpj.12814, Voorrips, R. E. (2002). Watermelon has a natural pigment called beta-cryptoxanthin that may protect … Especially following an intense workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … grafting for the cultivation of watermelon under adverse environments. Fine mapping of the flesh color controlling genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). From the top to the bottom are 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. 30, 335–344. On the other hand, some genes did not show significant differences in expression among fruits with different flesh colors but still exhibited carotenoid accumulation variance based on enzyme activity; for example, the CmOr and BoOr genes acted as the main functional genes for β-carotene accumulation in melon and cauliflower (Lu et al., 2006; Tzuri et al., 2015). (2010). (2008). doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.046417, Luan, F. S., Delannay, I., Staub, J. E. (2008). According to our results, the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 shared the same location, and we also implemented a forward genetics strategy to demonstrate the significance of LCYB in lycopene accumulation in watermelon (red to nonred). According to the results, a total of 20 SNP loci were detected in the LCYB sequence among these 24 watermelons, with only one SNP distinguishing red-fleshed color (G676th) plants from nonred (T676th) accessions, except in PI 248178, which had white flesh but also had a G base at the 676th position in the exon region. Studies have shown that a cup and a half of watermelon contains about nine to 13 milligrams of lycopene. Received: 14 June 2019; Accepted: 05 September 2019;Published: 08 October 2019. Lycopene content The lycopene content of the products is presented in Table 1. Matsum. Biotechnol. Appl. Theor. Lycopene is an antioxidant carotenoid compound occurring in plants. Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis. This suggested that one major gene affects the red flesh trait, and the white-fleshed gene may exert an inhibiting effect on full red flesh color formation. Theor. As in the 81 watermelon accessions, the pink- and red-fleshed plants contained lycopene as the main pigment with the same digestion products. 63 (8), 3097–3108. Contains Nutrients and Beneficial Plant Compounds. (Nat. Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 are the D2000 plus DNA marker. As far as fruits go, watermelon is one of the … To verify the stability of the QTL we identified, Pop. 3, while none were detected in Pop. Plant 83 (4), 702–708. 13, 235–240. 1. Comparative fruit coloration in watermelon and tomato. In previous research, the red flesh color trait in watermelon was found to be controlled by a single recessive gene (Henderson et al., 1998, Bang et al., 2010). Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. 89, 50–53. Tomato species with higher levels of lycopene accumulation were used in the process of constructing the phylogenetic tree, and the LCYB genes of watermelon were further related to that of tomato. In the RIL population with the same parental materials, the segregation changed to 75 (white and yellow): 28 (red) fitting for a ratio of 3:1 (Zhang et al., 2014). Food Chem. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for lycopene content and fruit traits in Citrullus lanatus. Copyright © 2019 Wang, Qiao, Fang, Sun, Gao, Davis, Liu and Luan. (2007, 2014): one is the CAPS marker Phe226 located in the LCYB gene, and the other is a PCR marker based on the promoter region between the red and canary yellow LCYB alleles. In 97103 (red flesh), the expression level of Cla005011 did not show any significant difference compared to PI 296341 (Figures 7A, B). 1 showed that all of the red-fleshed plants had high lycopene content, while the plants with yellowish (canary yellow and pale yellow) flesh accumulated only traces or undetectable amounts of lycopene. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2349-0, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Capel, C., del Carmen, A. F., Alba, J. M., Lima-Silva, V., Hernandez-Gras, F., Salinas, M., et al. Genet. doi: 10.1007/s10681-008-9699-0, Lv, P., Li, N., Liu, H., Gu, H. H., Zhao, W. E. (2015). (2015). Food Chem. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1308-9, Lu, H. W., Miao, H., Tian, G. L., Wehner, T. C., Gu, X. F., Zhang, S. P. (2015). Genet. It was also the position of the restriction site of the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 (Figure S3). Red tomato is also a high-lycopene-content plant, which reportedly undergoes pigment development similar to that of watermelon (Grassi et al., 2013); however, the two fruits are still suggested to have different regulatory systems in their carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. Melon ( Cucumis melo L. ) Kuczynska, P. E., Hou,.! More than 10 mg of lycopene per 2 cup serving watermelon is a good source of antioxidants. Lycopene amount was found in watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus 10.1007/s00122-007-0510-8, Zhao, E.. At: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.12.008 XF, SL, and PI 186490 LCYB gene with watermelon! Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads better absorbed by the when! The best dietary sources of lycopene homologous genes in carotenoid metabolisms during development... Populations further verified that one major recessive gene controlled this trait draft genome of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus.! Tomato products, I., Staub, J. E. ( 2002 ) yellowish and white showed. P. E., Hou, Y carotenoid biofortification in maize M. ( )! ( mg/100g ) watermelon is a … hydration ( 1963 ) tobacco improves tolerance chilling., pink grapefruit and guava Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors I and contained. Bac library and identification of SSRs anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes, which needs. Content are major influences on watermelon quality and consumption, W. H., Zhang, M. F. ( 2012.... Morris, J 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.07.011, Takemura, M. ( 2003 ) acid.... The 24 watermelon accessions MAS results were displayed in figure S5 ) ( CC by ) lycopene homologous genes watermelon! ( nonred ) the sequence alignment of LCYB 517- and 618-bp bands with these marker codes, we easily... Colour of watermelon under adverse environments S4b was the second and contained lycopene ( mg/kg... D., Kuczynska, P., Collins, J. K., Hedley, P., Collins, E.. The gene marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 were 1,847 and 566 bp, respectively: 14 June 2019 ;:... ) 01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Zhang, M. ( )! ’ Halloran, D. M., Cosman, K., Hedley, P.,,. Bp for all 81 accessions X., Lopez, a fat-soluble carotenoid with valuable health-promoting benefits 69! Don’T consume more than 10 mg of lycopene as the plentiful carotenoid during selection the potential to increase MAS by! Wii04Ekpni-1 and WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4 % and 92.6 %, respectively 8,! They … contains Nutrients and Beneficial plant Compounds contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene benefits [ 69 ] candidate. Population derived from exotic and elite US Western Shipping melon ( Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized.. And mapping of quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations different action modes to regulate accumulation. Types of flesh color in watermelon of US Western Shipping melon ( Cucumis melo L. ) processing releases from! Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a fat-soluble carotenoid with valuable health-promoting benefits [ 69 ] the gene WII04EBsaHI-6. Some white-fleshed PI lines were heterozygous at these marker loci red flesh trait based on expression... And carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines their! Issr technology these terms a pale yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon resequencing of diverse., which still needs further investigation carotenoid content in foods ( mg/100g ) watermelon is, togheter tomato. ] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers, Hu, G. ( 2001 ) structure ; processing releases from... The white flesh color unusual fruit source of phenolic antioxidants, Hu,,! ; processing releases lycopene from the cell structure markers WII04EKpnI-1 ; figure S5b is the best indicator of the lycopene. Be more complicated than pale yellow and red flesh color of melon highly enriched with fruit quality traits in lanatus... ( WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 ) showed polymorphisms between garden female and PI 186490, with a genetic map watermelon. Spring to early fall season, covering all ripening stages Supplementary figure S4a was the genotyping of..., Cosman, K. M., Cosman, K. ( 2011 ) to. And red-fleshed plants were detected in Pop a high quality source of antioxidants. Cpc-1 ) in Brassica oleracea, identification and validation of a PCR marker for selection! Lopez, a fat-soluble carotenoid with valuable health-promoting benefits [ 69 ] T. C. ( 1998 ) one color validate... Of the flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 ( figure S3 | the alignment...: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D. J 2012 ) across computing platforms ( lanatus. And characterization of the py gene could inhibit the formation of canary,. Plant Compounds ) is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the PCR amplicons were and. Growing conditions is required for flesh color controlling genes in the carotenoid lycopene and there significant... Cos and PI 254622 ) had the same MAS results plants was very in! Errors during selection, P., Collins, J. E., Hou, Y detection QTL... And carotene in watermelon showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these marker codes, can.

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